Primitivo is a red grape variety known for producing high-alcohol and tannic wines with intense flavors and deep colors. It is primarily grown in Puglia, Italy, particularly in the region of Manduria where fortified "liquoroso" variants can reach an alcohol by volume (ABV) of 18%. Primitivo is closely related to Zinfandel, which was introduced to the United States in the early 19th century under that name. DNA analysis later revealed that Zinfandel and Primitivo are the same variety. In the 1990s, the EU's vine pull scheme led to the removal of many Primitivo vines. However, the popularity of Zinfandel in the US helped revive interest in the grape. Primitivo is a challenging variety to grow and is susceptible to drought, frost, and vine pests.